The use of chemical fertilizers and organic manure has both positive and negative effects on plant growth and the soil. Chemical fertilizers are relatively inexpensive, have high nutrient contents, and are rapidly taken up by plants. However, the use of excess fertilizer can result in a number of problems, such as nutrient loss, surface water and groundwater contamination, soil acidification or basification, reductions in useful microbial communities, and increased sensitivity to harmful insects (Chen 2006). Organic manure has a number of shortcomings, including low nutrient content, slow decomposition, and different nutrient compositions depending on its organic materials, compared to chemical fertilizers. However, organic manure has multiple benefits due to the balanced supply of nutrients, including micronutrients, increased soil nutrient availability due to increased soil microbial activity, the decomposition of harmful elements, soil structure improvements and root development, and increased soil water availability.
In agricultural fields, organic manure that is produced from animal byproducts has been utilized to overcome environmental contamination and plant productivity reductions that result from the constant utilization of chemical fertilizers. Recycling waste from the livestock industry prevents environmental contamination and reduces treatment costs. At the same time, it promotes soil improvements and agricultural productivity. However, the simultaneous use of chemical fertilizer and organic manure has revealed diverse results relative to the plant types and soil characteristics